Gastric Disorders - Causes and Treatments
Gastritis is the most common digestive disorder, which causes chronic stomach inflammation and in extreme cases may even lead to stomach ulcer. If you are frequently suffering from this avoidable agony, it's better to take it seriously to shun worsening of case.

Various types of cataracts

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Research is scant and mixed but weakly positive for the nutrients lutein and zeaxanthin. Bilberry extract shows promise in rat models. and in clinical studies
Bilateral cataracts in an infant due to Congenital rubella syndrome, courtesy CDCThe following is a classification of the various types of cataracts. This is not comprehensive and other unusual types may be noted.

Classified by etiology

Age-related cataract
Immature Senile Cataract (IMSC) – partially opaque lens, disc view hazy
Mature Senile Cataract (MSC) – Completely opaque lens, no disc view
Hypermature Senile Cataract (HMSC) – Liquefied cortical matter: Morgagnian


Congenital cataract
Sutural cataract
Lamellar cataract
Zonular cataract
Total cataract
Secondary cataract
Slit lamp photo of Anterior capsular opacification visible a few months after implantation of Intraocular lens in eye, magnified viewDrug-induced cataract (e.g. Corticosteroids)

Traumatic cataract

Blunt trauma (capsule usually intact)
Penetrating trauma (capsular rupture & leakage of lens material – calls for an emergency surgery for extraction of lens and leaked material to minimize further damage)

Classified by location of opacity within lens structure (However, mixed morphology is quite commonly seen, e.g. PSC with nuclear changes & cortical spokes of cataract)
Anterior cortical cataract
Anterior polar cataract
Anterior subcapsular cataract

Slit lamp photo of Posterior capsular opacification visible a few months after implantation of Intraocular lens in eye, seen on retroilluminationNuclear cataract – Grading correlates with hardness & difficulty of surgical removal
1 – Grey
2 – Yellow
3 – Amber
4 – Brown/Black (Note: “Black cataract” translated in some languages (like Hindi) refers to Glaucoma, not the color of the lens nucleus)

Posterior cortical cataract

Posterior polar cataract (importance lies in higher risk of complication – posterior capsular tears during surgery)
Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (clinically common)


Posterior capsular opacification subsequent to a successful extracapsular cataract surgery (usually within 3 months – 2 years) with or without IOL implantation. Requires a quick & painless office procedure with Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy to restore optical clarity.