Lung Cancer

The process of breathe in, air passes from your nose through the trachea, which divides into two tubes, one going to each lung. These are known as the right and left bronchus.

Carbon dioxide is a waste gas that must be removed from the body. It passes from the bloodstream into the alveoli and is then breathed out through the lungs.

Many lung cancers start in the cells lining the bronchi and are called carcinomas of the bronchus or bronchogenic carcinomas.

Types of lung cancer

There are two types of lung cancer:

  • Primary lung cancer
  • Mesothelioma

The Primary lung cancer is further divided into two:

Small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.

There are about 1 in 5 lung cancers are small cell, the rest are non-small cell.

Non-small cell lung cancer

The three main types of non-small cell lung cancer are:

Squamous cell carcinoma: It is the common type of lung cancer. It develops in the cells which line the airways. It is often caused by smoking.

Adenocarcinoma: It is caused from the cells which produce mucus in the lining of the airways.

Large cell carcinoma: Usually surrounded by large cells. Sometimes known as undifferentiated carcinoma


It is the rarely caused cancer that can affect the cover of the lungs. The cancer of membrane covers the surface of the lungs and the lines inside of the chest.

Symptoms of Lung Cancer?

There are several symptoms and people may not experience all the symptoms. The possible symptoms includes: a cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, persistent hoarseness, swelling of the neck and face, weight loss, fatigue and loss of appetite, Unexplained fever, Recurrent lung infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.

Cause of Lung Cancer

Some of the causes of lung cancer are as follows:

Smoking – Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer can also develop in people who do not smoke, which is very rare. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with the number of cigarette and at what age people start smoking.

Asbestos – People who are in close contact with asbestos have a higher risk of developing lung cancer, especially if they smoke. Asbestos and tobacco smoke together act as main cause of lung cancer.

Other – Other causes includes certain chemical and close contact with substance such as uranium, chromium and nickel.

Lung Cancer Treatment

Treatment with Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy may be used separately or together to treat lung cancer. The primary factors that need to be taken care of include your age, your general health and the type or size of the lung.

Surgery – This involves an operation, an operation is done to remove the tumour. Surgery is often done if the cancer is only in one part of the body and has not spread across. The type of operation will depend on the area of body which is affected by the cancer and also on the size and the position of the tumour.

Radiotherapy – The radiotherapy use a very high energy x-rays to destroy the cancer cells and cause a very little harm to normal cells. The radiotherapy is aimed at the affected part of the body and is very carefully planned. This therapy causes side effects and most common one involves is tiredness.

Chemotherapy – This involves the use of anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells. There are over 50 different Chemotherapy drugs. Some are given as tablets or capsules but mostly given by drip into a vein. It can cause side effects, again depends upon the combination of drugs used.

Can lung cancer be prevented?

Lung cancer can be prevented if people stop smoking as early as possible and also limited exposure to substance such as uranium, chromium and nickel.