Eating Disorder – Starvation Diet – Types
Starvation Diets affect the “energy in” component of the energy balance by limiting or altering the distribution of foods. Techniques that affect the appetite can limit energy intake by affecting the desire to overeat.
Consumption of low-energy, fiber-rich foods, such as non-starchy vegetables, is effective in obtaining satiation (the feeling of “fullness”). Exercise is also useful in controlling appetite as is drinking water and sleeping. (Extreme physical fatigue, such as experienced by soldiers and mountain climbers, can make eating a difficult chore.)
The use of drugs to control appetite is also common. Stimulants are often taken as a means to suppress (normal, healthy) hunger by people who are dieting. Ephedrine (through facilitating the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline) stimulates the alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor subtype, which is known to act as an anorectic. L-
Phenylalanine, an amino acid found in whey protein powders also has the ability to suppress appetite by increasing the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) which sends a satiety signal to the brain.
There exist both profit-oriented and non-profit weight loss organizations who assist people in their weight loss efforts. An example of the former is Weight Watchers ; examples of the latter include Overeaters Anonymous, as well as a multitude of non-branded support groups run by local churches, hospitals, and like-minded individuals.
These organizations’ customs and practices differ widely. Some groups are modelled on twelve-step programs, while others are quite informal. Some groups advocate certain prepared foods or special menus, while others train dieters to make healthy choices from restaurant menus and while grocery-shopping and cooking.
Most groups leverage the power of group meetings to provide counseling, emotional support, problem-solving, and useful information. Popular diets (sometimes pejoratively called “fad diets”) usually derive their popularity from the personalities of their proponents. These proponents include “diet gurus” and celebrity converts. “Diet books” are the primary means of communicating the specifics of popular diets. Most popular diets experience short-lived popularity, partly because new diet books are continuously being published.
Judging the effectiveness (and nutritional merit) of popular diets can be especially difficult. Diet proponents often locate medical professionals to back up their work. Some diets are so controversial that they divide the medical community.
Many popular diets advocate the combination of a specific technique (such as eliminating a certain food, or eating only certain combinations of foods) with reduced caloric intake, with the goal being to accelerate weight loss. Others ignore traditional science altogether.
Low-fat diets were popular during the 1980s and 1990s, encouraging people to eat foods low in fat (or without fat altogether) and instead eat foods high in carbohydrates. The general public came to believe, partly due to information from low-fat diet proponents, that carbohydrates were “energy food” and that only fat made people fat. This led to high consumption of low-fat foods high in refined carbohydrates (notably corn syrup), which may have contributed towards increased weight gain as carbohydrates (particularly refined carbohydrates) have a low nutrient density and high in calories. Some low-fat diets like the Pritikin diet focus on whole grains, vegetables and lean meats.