Diabetes and Excercies
Diet and Exercise Delay Diabetes and Normalize Blood Glucose
A major survey was conducted on millions of overweight Americans. The result of the survey indicated that these overweight Americans can delay and optimistically prevent the type 2 diabetes, if they follow a moderate diet and exercise. The survey also found that the intake of metformin (an oral diabetes drug) brings down type 2 diabetes risks. But the change of lifestyle was found to be more effective in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, when compared to the oral drug. The result of the survey named as Diabetes Prevention Program was reported in the New England Journal of Medicine in the February 7 issue
“This research conveys a powerful message of hope to individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes; as painful, life-threatening disease that has been increasing in this country along with obesity,” says the secretary of HHS, Mr. Tommy G. Thompson. “By adopting a moderate, consistent diet and exercise program, many people with one or more of the risk factors for type II diabetes can stop the disease before it becomes irreversible.”
The diabetes prevention program consisted of a three prong approach. In that, it tested the people first with their lifestyle modification, secondly with oral intake of metformin and thirdly a standard medical advice into 3234 overweight People, whose blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic. These overweight people had a problem of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). About 20 million people in the United States have reported IGT. The patients with IGT are more prone to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. When compared, the patients with type II diabetes run 2 to 4 times risk of being affected by the heart and blood vessel disease than the people without diabetes.
The result of this three pronged approach indicated that the first practice of Diet and exercise has reduced the diabetes incidence by 58 percent. The participants were put to a regular exercise of reasonable amount by roughly walking for 30 minutes a day for five days a week. This has given a result of a lowered intake of calories and fats. Alternately, some volunteers have been subjected to treatment with metformin and they had a 31 percent reduction of type 2 diabetes. The effect of metformin on the liver is that it has reduced the level of livers production of glucose.
“Lifestyle intervention worked equally well in men and women and in all the ethnic groups. It was most effective in people age 60 and older, who lowered the risk of developing diabetes by 71 percent. Metformin was also effective in both sexes and in all the ethnic groups, but it was relatively ineffective in older volunteers and in those who were less overweight,” was a comment by Dr. David Nathan of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and the study chair.
Fasting blood glucose levels were invariably lowered by any of the interventions. But what caused a deep notch in the fasting blood glucose levels was the life style change. This was proved effectively by taking a glucose drink and then conducting a blood glucose test two hours after it. Hence it was proved that life style changes can bring about a change in the blood glucose levels and that one can regain normal tolerances to glucose. This so with diet and exercise alone can reverse impaired glucose tolerance.
A quote by Dr Allen Spiegel is stated herein; “Not only did changes in diet and physical activity prevent or delay the development of diabetes; they actually restored normal glucose levels in many people who had impaired glucose tolerance,”. Dr. Allen Spiegel is the director of National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). This is a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that played a major role in sponsoring this study. “These findings bring us closer to the goal of containing and ultimately reversing the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in this country.”
In the study that was conducted the volunteers for the Diabetes Prevention Program were assigned to one of the three groups that were formed. The three groups were given specific tasks as follows.
For the first group, they were assigned the task of modifying their lifestyles. The aim was to reduce their weight by seven percent. This was to be achieved by a low fat diet and by exercising for 150 minutes for a week.
The second group was treated with drug metformin. The dosage level was 850 milligrams tablets two times a day. This was a drug that was approved to treat type 2 diabetes in the year 1995.
The third group of volunteers went in for a standard treatment of taking placebo pills in the place of metformin tablets.
The second and the third group also received information on control of diabetes by diet and exercise.
There was another study that was going on, a study that done for the treatment of diabetes with the help of the drug troglitazone (Rezulin). This was also supported by the standard diet and exercise culture. However this study was discontinued as it was found that the drug was causing a potential toxicity problem to the liver.
The study was conducted to determine diabetes. The volunteers for the program (The diabetes prevention program) were between an age ranges of twenty five years to eighty five years. The average age range of the group stood at fifty one years. The criteria for becoming a part of the study were that all of them should have impaired glucose tolerance and all of them were overweight. Their average body mass index stood at thirty four.
It was found that twenty nine percent of the group developed diabetes within the first three years of their enrolling in the program. Of the second group that was formed, it was found that only fourteen percent of the group was afflicted by diabetes. This was a group that devoted itself to the diet and exercise from of staying healthy.
Whereas twenty two percent of the third group that was taking metformin pills also developed diabetes. The diet and exercise arm met the intended goal with an average fifteen pound weight loss. Of the group that was formed, we had forty five percent of the population from the minority groups. The minority group consisted of people from African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Pacific Islanders.
The trials were done which was consisted of different groups. This was a high risk group, a group of people that consisted of persons from age above sixty, women with a history of gestational diabetics and people who had a relative with the type II diabetes.
The researchers were not able to proceed for more than a period of three years. However the data collected can provide a specific conclusion as to whether an intervention can reduce atherosclerosis and cardio vascular diseases that were taking place in people affected by diabetics. These two are the major known killers due to diabetes.
Many other studies were conducted on diabetes. All studies have shown a pointer that exercise and diet can delay the onset of diabetes in high risk category patients. The study conducted in different centers across the United States has shown that diabetes can cause a marked delay is one is having a change in lifestyle that has been adopted for many other reasons by overweight Americans.
There are about seventeen million people whoa re affected by diabetes across the United States. Of this population only one million people are affected by type I diabetes. The rest of them are affected by type II diabetes. Type II diabetes has been the major contributing factor to disabilities across the United States. The disabilities include blindness, limb amputations and heart problems. Type II diabetes has more often than not been attributed to obesity as all research papers in the past has shown and all that is being currently pursed. People with a body mass index of more than 30 are at a greater risk of diabetes than those who are within their weight category.