Bones

Bones of The Human Body

The major portion of vertebrate’s skeleton is formed by calcified connective tissues called bones. Calcium is major component of the bone. There are approximately two hundred fifty six bones in human body. Bones contain more calcium when compared to other body organs.

The development of bones starts even before birth of human. Firstly, the skeleton is formed by flexible cartilage. However, within some weeks of formation it starts the ossification process. Ossification means replacement of flexible cartilage with stretchy collagen and hard calcium phosphate deposits. The procedure of ossification is lengthy and takes more than 20 years for completion.

The bones of the human are made up from following two types of tissues.

  • Spongy bone : The spongy inner layer of bone is known as cancellous bone. It is lighter and less dense when compared to compact bone
  • Compact bone : The hard outer layer of the bone is called as compact or cortical bone

Bones can be transplanted and donated.

Functions of bones

Following are the main functions of bone.

  • Providing protection to the inner organs
  • Provide support to the body against constant gravitational pull
  • Production of blood cells. Blood cells are produced by bone marrow present in the bone
  • Store essential minerals
  • Help human beings in movements

Constituents of bone

Vitamins, protein and minerals are the major constituents of bones. Calcium, manganese, potassium, silica, zinc, magnesium, iron, boron, sulfur, selenium, chromium, phosphorus are some of the minerals present in bones. Vitamin D consumed through diet help bones to absorb minerals.

Bone Diseases and injuries

Arthritis and osteoporosis are the main diseases of bone. Fracture, break in the bone, is the most common bone injury.

Tips for Healthy Bones

Following tips will help you in maintaining healthy bones for you and your children

  • Take good nutritious diet during pregnancy. This will not only help you but ensure the healthy bones for your baby
  • Good nutrition during period of bone formation
  • Normal menstruations during fertile years
  • Regular flexibility-building physical exercises such as yoga, tai chi etc will help you in maintaining healthy bones

General information about Joints

Place where two bones meet with each other is known as joint. Joint makes the skeleton flexible. It will be impossible to make movement without joints.

Flexible joints are characterized by cartilage lining on bone top. Bones are joined together by the ligaments. Ligaments also make joint stable.

Importance of Cartilage in Joints

Cartilage is a strong substance. Joint surfaces can move easily only with the help of cartilage. Cartilage also protect joint by restricting wear and tear of joint.

Joint injuries

Dislocation of joint is the most common injury of joint. Dislocation denotes that ends of bones, which are connected with the cartilage at joint, have lost their original position. Falls is often main cause behind dislocation of joint. Usually, dislocations are serious in nature and need immediate medical treatment. Hips, Fingers, wrist, ankle and shoulder joints are the common sites where dislocation can take place.